For nearly 50 years and more than 160 issues, Terra et Aqua has benchmarked innovative maritime solutions. Articles are available here as well as in IADC’s Knowledge Centre.

166
Published May 2022

Terra et Aqua 166: complete issue

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Interview: Marsha Cohen – Editor-in-chief for quarter of a century

As IADC celebrates 50 years of its quarterly journal, it seemed only fitting to speak to its longest standing editor, Marsha Cohen, who stood at the helm of Terra et Aqua for 25 years. We caught up with her at her home in Florida to talk about the highs, the lows and a good dose of serendipity.

50 years of case law that transformed marine infrastructure contracts

Authors: David Kinlan
This article reviews various court cases over the past 50 years and considers their influence on marine infrastructure contracts and the allocation of risk between contract parties. The establishment of case law and legal precedent is an ever-evolving process, it being dependent on claimants to put their disputes through the court process to seek the outcome they desire. It is often a long and costly process. The rise of adjudication in various common law jurisdictions and countries means that often disputes are resolved without recourse to the courts and various industry standard contracts have arbitration as the final and binding mechanism to resolve disputes.

Building a proactive safety culture within a marine contractor organisation

It is hard to imagine a time when safety was not deemed important, when Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) was not used and little was done in the way of prevention. A few decades ago, occupational health and safety was not considered as important for the vast majority of companies. Instead, incidents and emergencies were handled as they occurred, as effectively as possible given the limited technology and resources available. Today, those times have changed. This article explores the progress of health and safety in the dredging industry and QHSSE professionals, Ton van de Minkelis and Christophe Leroy share their experiences in building a proactive safety culture.

Young Author Award winners: Where are they now?

Each year, at selected conferences, the Conference Paper Committee is asked to recommend a prize winner whose paper makes a significant contribution to the literature on dredging and related fields. Since 1987, IADC has presented 42 Young Author Awards. Curious to see where they are now, we asked previous winners what impact winning the award had on them and their career.

Pipeline design – density wave amplification and slurry dynamics

The effect of density waves and slurry dynamics on slurry pipeline flow assurance cannot be predicted with current slurry pipeline design methods. Current methods are based on steady-state assumptions, assuming that the mixture velocity and density are constant in time and in the pipeline. Therefore, using current design methods a dynamically stable pipeline cannot be guaranteed. Furthermore, new experiments in vertical pipelines show that density wave amplification is possible at mixture velocities far above the critical velocity. This article presents a new temporal design method based on 1D Driftflux CFD, which is able to model growing density waves.

Shaping the engineers of tomorrow

During his distinguished career as professor of Coastal Engineering at Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), Kees d’Angremond served as head of Hydraulic and Offshore Engineering, chair of the department of Hydraulic and Geotechnical Engineering, and dean of the faculty of Civil Engineering from 1989 to 2001. Now professor emeritus, he still works as an advisor and independent consultant. We invited Kees to a conversation with Stefan Aarninkhof, professor of Coastal Engineering and chair of the department of Hydraulic Engineering at TU Delft, to talk about their careers in the dredging industry and the role of academia in the industry today.
165
Published December 2021

Terra et Aqua 165: complete issue

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The impact and costs of Building with Nature projects

The use of nature and natural processes is an innovative way to increase water safety and create added value through nature development and recreation. This exploratory study provides an initial inventory of the impact and costs of existing Building with Nature projects in the Netherlands. It also includes an analysis of the decision-making process in choosing this type of project and identifies success factors. Building with Nature projects deliver added value but often also involve additional costs compared to traditional reinforcements. These costs give an indication of what we as a society are prepared to pay for the development of nature and recreation as part of hydraulic engineering projects.

Keppel Offshore & Marine’s Safety Plus Programme

IADC’s Safety Committee and Board of Directors awarded the very first Safety Award to a supply chain organisation active in the dredging industry to Keppel FELS. The company was praised by the committee for the results of its safety programme and commitment to safety onsite. Anchored in Keppel Offshore & Marine’s Safety Plus Programme and Singapore's National WSH Vision 2028, Keppel FELS continues to consistently improve and enhance its existing Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) management systems.

Jan De Nul crew invents innovative bollard step

During marine transfers, it is essential to achieve a maximum level of control. With the bollard step, Jan De Nul has designed a simple solution to enhance safety during transfers of crew and visitors. This innovative idea came from the crew of the multicat DN46 and was picked up during an Operational Control meeting, where an advisory board discusses suggestions that improve the safety and efficiency of the company’s operations. ‘We stimulate all possible innovative ideas within our company’, says Quinten Schaumont, Area QHSSE advisor. ‘At all levels, at all times.’

The valuation of externalities in maritime infrastructure projects

Climate change and increasing environmental damage are demonstrating the urgency of transformation to a sustainable global economic model. The implementation of the sustainable development concept tends to narrow to integrating environmental, social, and economic concerns in the decision making. In economics, the definition of such concerns is an externality that represents the divergence between social and private costs. This study investigates the available sustainable asset valuation methods that can include the externalities materialised in maritime infrastructure projects and compares them based on economic, social and environmental criteria.

The responsible project: A view on social licence

In today’s world, expectations for sustainable practices are fast becoming the norm. Countries, the public and communities are requesting transparency, the application of higher environmental standards and involvement in decision-making processes when new developments in a marine environment are proposed. Marine infrastructure projects not only require environmental permits and works licences to be in place, they also need a Social Licence to Operate (SLO). This article describes the social licence in this fast-changing context of information and technology, and explores tools that can be used to develop a ‘responsible project’ and provide a successful and sustainable outcome for society and the environment.

Editorial (Winter 2021)

Frank Verhoeven, President of IADC, shares his thoughts on todays’ issues related to the dredging industry and introduces the articles in this issue of Terra et Aqua.
164
Published September 2021

Terra et Aqua 164: complete issue

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Editorial (Autumn 2021)

Frank Verhoeven, President of IADC, shares his thoughts on todays’ issues related to the dredging industry and introduces the articles in this issue of Terra et Aqua.

Applying the ecosystem services concept in marine projects

A full consideration of ecosystem services (ES) impacts, interactions and improvements can result in more sustainable and adaptive solutions for dredging and marine construction projects. Furthermore, the benefits can be translated in monetary terms, providing returns on investment and highlighting the links between ecology and economy. For some however, the ES concept is too theoretical. This article seeks to show how the ES concept can actively be applied at any point during a project and the benefits of doing so. Its purpose is to provide a framework for integrated and interdisciplinary thinking throughout the different steps of the project cycle.

Finding innovative solutions to improve safety

When individual employees, teams and companies view everyday processes and situations through a continuous lens of safety, they can each contribute to making all aspects of operational processes, whether on water or land, safer. For the 2021 Safety Awards, IADC's Safety Committee received 15 submissions. Each one is assessed on five different categories; sustainability; level of impact on the industry; simplicity in use; effectiveness; and level of innovation.

Study of greenhouse gas emissions during ripening of dredged marine sediment

As increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions contribute to global warming, it is becoming more important to consider the carbon footprint of hydraulic engineering projects. This carbon footprint is more complex than previously thought however, as it can also include the carbon dynamics of the sediments from which projects are built. The purpose of this study was to provide a first approximation from sediment-related GHG emissions of dredged sediments. Using the case study of the clay ripening pilot project (‘Kleirijperij’) in Groningen, the Netherlands, one phase of sediment processing was examined: the ripening of dredged sediments for use as a clay material in dyke construction.

Balancing project progress and limited system knowledge in Amatique Bay

The development of a new marine project demands a system approach in which all aspects, including technical, economic, environmental and social, are considered and integrated equally and at an early stage. While insufficient information may be available to make informed decisions, choices need to be made to progress a project, assess impacts and risks, and engage stakeholders. This article explores the case of a new port terminal in Amatique Bay, Guatemala. A method was developed to assess, at an early stage, the potential negative impacts on seagrass habitats from the disposal of dredged material at different locations, while having limited real-time and location-specific information at hand.
163
Published June 2021

Terra et Aqua 163: complete issue

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Interview with Dr Todd Bridges

‘It’s clear that the solutions that we employed in our approach to engineering in the 20th century are not aging well.’ As National Lead for the Engineering With Nature initiative, Dr Todd Bridges discusses how we must have a diversified solution set in which nature is a part of the solution.

Editorial

Frank Verhoeven, President of IADC, shares his thoughts on todays’ issues related to the dredging industry and introduces the articles in this issue of Terra et Aqua.
162
Published March 2021

Terra et Aqua 162: complete issue

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Creating mangrove habitat for shoreline protection

Over the past decades, there has been a growing interest in exploring innovative ways to minimise the environmental footprint of coastal developments and in nature-based approaches for shoreline protection. At Mubarraz Island near Abu Dhabi (UAE), an international oil company beneficially reused ~12 million m³ of dredged material to protect pipelines, construct a causeway and create mangrove habitat to manage coastal erosion. This ‘Working with Nature’ approach has provided a cost-effective nature-based solution for shoreline protection, with added benefits for biodiversity conservation.

LIFE MARINAPLAN PLUS Project: Sustainable marine and coastal seabed management

In June 2019, the research team of the LIFE MARINAPLAN PLUS project began operating the first-of-a-kind demonstration plant installation at the harbour entrance of Marina di Cervia (Italy). Fulfilling the project’s objective to apply at industrial scale a reliable technology for the sustainable management of sediment in marine infrastructures, this technology prevents harbour silting through the use of submerged devices called ‘ejectors’ installed on the seabed.
161
Published December 2020

Terra et Aqua 161: complete issue

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Bio-Engineering Sediment Management And Removal of Turbidity Technologies: BESMART Technologies

At Deltares in the Netherlands, a research team is developing a portfolio of technologies dedicated to the management of the finest and most challenging fraction of soft sediments. These technologies may unambiguously be called nature based because they make use of natural processes to enhance dewatering and strengthening, induce flocculation and the settling of fines, and protect the muddy bed from erosion.

The Smartsediment tool: a QGIS plug-in for evaluating ecosystems services

Managing sediments, especially from dredging, is important for the management of estuaries and coastal areas. When implemented in the right way, a sediment management strategy can be qualified as a nature-based solution as it uses the physical processes of erosion and sedimentation to create added value. There is a need for an evaluation of sediment strategies and the habitats that are created for a wider range of objectives than only biodiversity and nature conservation. The concept of ecosystem services provides this broader framework.

Interview: Stéphanie Groen, Director of Coastal & Climate Change in Asia for Aurecon in Singapore

Stéphanie Groen works as the Director of Coastal & Climate Change, Asia for Aurecon. Based in Singapore, she was appointed to the position at the beginning of 2020. Previously, Stéphanie was involved in marine and environmental projects for more than 15 years with DHI and her education is in civil engineering and business administration. IADC also knows Stéphanie as the winner of the Young Author Award in 2007. More recently, she was appointed as a committee member to the prestigious FIDIC Sustainable Development Committee. We were interested to hear more from Stéphanie – her views on sustainability, the collaboration with the dredging industry through FIDIC and what her new role can mean for sustainable water infrastructure projects.

Land reclamation: The potential for subsurface freshwater storage

At present too little use is made of the opportunities that the design and construction of land reclamation offer for the underground storage and recovery of fresh water. The managed aquifer recharge systems in the coastal dunes of the Netherlands are a good example of successful subsurface water storage. And it is to be expected that the sandy deposits of land reclamations could serve a similar purpose. This in turn will contribute to a sustainable development of land reclamations.
160
Published September 2020

Terra et Aqua 160: complete issue

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Monitoring of settling and consolidation of mud after water injection dredging in the Calandkanaal

As regular maintenance and relocation of sediment deposits are highly expensive, Port authorities seek more efficient solutions for reducing the costs and CO2 emissions of maintenance dredging. One solution, water injection dredging (WID), is carried out for maintaining the sediment deposits which predominantly consist of clay and silt. WID has been proven to be a cheaper solution by leaving the sediment in place, eliminating substantial costs for relocation of the dredged sediment.

Interview: Panama Canal’s deputy administrator Ilya Espino de Marotta

Armed with degrees in both Marine Engineering and Engineering Economics as well as 35 years – and counting – of experience at the Panama Canal Authority, Ilya Espino de Marotta has blasted through the glass ceiling wearing a pink hard hat. Amongst the diverse roles she has under her belt, ranging from Marine Engineer in the shipyard to Vice President for Transit Business, Ilya has notably led the Canal’s expansion as head engineer and now oversees operations from the second highest position at the authority.
159
Published June 2020

Terra et Aqua 159: complete issue

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Mediation 101 for the Dredging Industry

The international dredging and maritime construction industry remains quite devoid of the use of mediation as a tool for Alternative Dispute Resolution. Mediation is outlined to broaden familiarity with mediation, increase confidence in the process, and inform about the benefits it can bring to the industry at large.

Assessing and evaluating environmental turbidity limits for dredging

Authors: Klavs Bundgaard
Dredging is essential for the maintenance and development of ports, harbours and waterways to allow for safe navigation, remediation and flood management. The process, which relocates large volumes of sediment, can be accompanied by the release of suspended sediments into the water column referred to as sediment plumes.
158
Published March 2020

Terra et Aqua 158: complete issue

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Managing risks: how to select the appropriate dredging contract

Contracts for dredging and offshore works are diverse. Moreover, increasing financial and/or managerial constraints require contracting parties to change the apportionment of commercial risk. Contractors and suppliers have to adapt to contracts that are chosen unilaterally by the owner. Turnkey and engineering, procurement, and construction (EPC) contracts are becoming more common in the industry and bring their own benefits and challenges.
157
Published December 2019

Terra et Aqua 157 – complete issue

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