Cables for offshore wind farms in the North Sea are buried for protection. A highly variable seabed topography influences the trenching process in sandy soils. A model has been developed to estimate the influence of sand dunes on the trenching process.
The report provides the general concept of ecosystem services and the overall considerations on its use in the context of dredging projects.
Demand for submarine cables for exporting the energy from wind farms to shore is increasing. To prevent damage to the cables when exposed on the sea bed, adequate protection is critical, but current calculation methods are usually empirically extrapolated. To better predict towing forces, a new calculation method is given.